Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries

Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V and Rao, Srinivasa N (2004) Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, 4 (4). pp. 201-212. ISSN 0972-6292

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Abstract

Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

EPrint Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cardiac Pacemakers, Pacemaker batteries
Subjects:-Journal Repositories > Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Surgical Procedures, Operative > Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures
Equipment and Supplies > Surgical Equipment > Artificial Organs > Pacemaker, Artificial
Cardiovascular Diseases > Heart Diseases > Arrhythmia
ID Code:167
Deposited By:Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Deposited On:04 July 2005

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