Subacute oral toxicity study of acephate in synthetic white leghorn birds
Purohit, Tejendra J. (2005) Subacute oral toxicity study of acephate in synthetic white leghorn birds. Masters thesis, Anand Agricultural University.
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The present study was conducted in 8 to 10 week old Synthetic White Leghorn birds; approximate medium lethal dose (ALD50) of Acephate use for the study was 852mg/kg. Seventy five birds were divided into five different groups. The birds of group C1 was given no treatment and served as control. Group C2 was administered groundnut oil (1ml/kg) and served as control (vehicle). Group T1 was put on 1/20th of ALD50 (42.6 mg/kg), while group T2 received 1/30th of ALD50 (28.4 mg/kg) and group T3 was administered with 1/40th of ALD50 (21.3 mg/kg) of Acephate suspended in 1 ml of groundnut oil. Once daily oral dosing was carried out for 28 days. All the birds were monitored for any observable toxic symptoms throughout the experimental period and they were also weighed weekly to monitor body weight gain. The blood samples were collected from wing vein at weekly interval and were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After 28 days of administration of Acephate birds were sacrificed and organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, brain and testes) were collected for histopathological examinations. Severity and extent of the clinical signs varied according to dosage administered to the birds. The clinical symptoms observed were sudden onset of depression, reduced feed intake, dullness, ruffled feathers, cyanosis of comb, green diarrhea and severe limb weakness and some time paralysis. Nervine symptoms like tremor, head down condition and torticolis were noticed only for few minutes before death. There was a reduction in the body weight of the insecticide treated birds. No alteration had been recorded in haematological parameters (hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count) due to Acephate exposure. Dose dependent significant increase in blood glucose due to administration of Acephate was observed. A significant dose dependent increase in Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase and Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase level of the birds treated with the insecticide after 7 days of treatment indicates their systemic effect. Increase in the triglyceride was observed in treated birds. A significant decrease in serum proteins during study was recorded. Dose dependent increase in the alkaline phosphatase was observed. During the experimentation, Acephate at all the doses inhibited acetylcholinesterase indicating neurotoxicity due to administration of Acephate. Present study revealed that though Acephate is moderately toxic to the birds; it seems to be toxic for multiple systems in growing birds at given dosage. Gross postmortem and histopathological changes in various organs of birds treated with Acephate were observed with typical organophosphate dose dependent toxicity signs. Microscopic changes observed in different organs viz. lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis and brain which were typical to insecticide poisoning. Though Acephate has been reported moderately toxic to the birds at the doses administered in this study produce toxicity to multiple systems of growing birds used in the study.
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