Epidemiological study on canine parvoviral diarrhea in dogs by Polymerase Chain Reaction and it’s comparative efficacy with other diagnostic assays
Tajpara, Maheshkumar M. (2003) Epidemiological study on canine parvoviral diarrhea in dogs by Polymerase Chain Reaction and it’s comparative efficacy with other diagnostic assays. Masters thesis, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, INDIA.
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In India, interest in dog keeping has increased in recent years, particularly in urban areas. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) infection has emerged as comparatively a fresh challenge to healthy dog management by its continuing presence almost globally. The disease is clinically characterized by severe vomiting and diarrhea leading to fatal dehydration as well as myocarditis particularly in young pups. High rate of viral excretion in faeces during clinical phase of the disease coupled with low grade excretion prior to and after the clinical phase increase the chances of viral survival in the population. This demands the early and accurate detection of the virus enabling to take proper therapeutic and control measures promptly. The present study was aimed at screening dog population at Anand, Vadodara and Jamnagar regions of Gujarat State for CPV infection by advanced techniques like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and study a few epidemiological factors like breed, age, sex, season and vaccination status affecting the infection. Other diagnostic assays viz., Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), Counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), Haemagglutination (HA), Sandwich-ELISA and Dot-ELISA were also employed so as to compare their sensitivity with PCR as well as among themselves. A total of 65 faecal samples were collected from dogs showing signs of diarrhea by sterile rectal swabs. The samples were clarified and processed by various assays for CPV detection. PCR detected the virus in maximum number of 15 (23.07%) samples. Local breeds were found to be marginally more susceptible than exotic breeds as 26.66, 25.00, 11.76 and 27.23 percent of Doberman, Alsetian, Pomeranian and local breed digs were found to carry CPV infections. Agewise double the number of dogs below six months of age (31.25%) were found to be affected by CPV infection than the dogs above one year of age (26.31%). However, none of the dogs between six months to one year of age was found positive for CPV. Sexwise, male dogs (25.60%) were more affected than females (19.23%). Seasonwise incidence study revealed higher rate of CPV infected digs in summer months (March to June) than winter months (December to February). Unvaccinated dogs showed significantly higher incidence (31.40%) of CPV infection than the CPV vaccinated dogs (13.33%). Location wise, maximum incidence was found in Jamnagar district (40.00%) followed by Anand district (21.42%), while none of the sample from Vadodara district was positive for CPV. Other assays viz., AGID, CIE, HA, Sandwich-ELISA and Dot-ELISA yielded three (4.61%), six (4.61), three (4.61), four (6.15%) and seven (10.76%) samples positive for CPV out of the total 65 samples. Sensitivity of AGID and HA with PCR was 20.00%, while that of CIE, Sandwich-ELISA and Dot-ELISA was 40.00, 26.66 and 46.66 per cent respectively. Overall agreement between AGID and HA with PCR was 81.53 per cent, while that of CIE, Sandwich- ELISA and Dot-ELISA was 86.12, 82.07 and 87.68 per cent respectively. Specificity of all other assays used with PCR was 100 per cent. PCR was found to be the most sensitive assay in detecting CPV from faecal samples. Among the other assays, Dot-ELISA proved to be a better assay in term of sensitivity closely followed by CIE, while AGID and HA were found least sensitive in detecting CPV. PCR was found to be convenient for routine detection of CPV infection in faecal samples and thus, was a method of choice for this purpose.
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