Evaluation of antioxidant status in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders
Manocha, Anjali; Srivastava, L.M.; Kankara, Mamta and Bhargava, Seema (2002) Evaluation of antioxidant status in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. 9th APCCB and 28 th Annual Conference of ACBI, 47.
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The exposure of living organisms to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is unavoidable in life, as the generation of ATP from molecular oxygen requires electrons. ROS fall into two categories i.e. those that contain unpaired electrons : (O2,OH) or those that have the ability to extract electrons from other molecules (H2O2, HOCL). These reactive oxygen species could damage biomolecules directly or initiate chain reactions in which ROS are transferred from one molecule to another, resulting in extensive damage to cell structures such as membranes and proteins. This paradoxical need for, a toxic fuel molecule has a central role in biosciences, since life organisms would have to continuously battle to maintain an appropriate balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. If the balance sways in the direction of pro-oxidants, "oxidative stress" can occur, which is controlled by antioxidant enzymes, proteins and antioxidants provided by the diet. Deficiency or breakdown of such defenses against ROS could lead to damage, which has been strongly associated with several ailments including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which form the major review theme of this paper. (Moreover ROS should not become too low due to its significant roles in the immune system.) Various free radicals are controlled or neutralized by different antioxidants as a group and not individually. Hence monitoring of the antioxidants based on the measurements of total antioxidant capacity is conducive of the high-risk patients as well as evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and antioxidant potential of the drugs. While evaluating our findings that the total antioxidant capacity is significantly reduced in coronary heart disease it would be of paramount importance to discuss these along with the status in cerebrovascular disease and other chronic diseases viz. Alzheimer, autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and arthritis.
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