Predictors and frequency of conduction disturbances after open-heart surgery
Emkanjoo, Zahra; Mirza-Ali, Mansour; Alizadeh, Abollfath; Hosseini, Saied; Jorat, Mohammad Vahid; Nikoo, Mohammad Hossein and Sadr-Ameli, Mohammad (2008) Predictors and frequency of conduction disturbances after open-heart surgery. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, 8 (1). pp. 14-21. ISSN 0972-6292
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Introduction The risk of developing conduction disturbances after coronary bypass grafting (CABG) or valvular surgery has been well established in previous studies, leading to permanent pacemaker implantation in about 2% to 3% of patients, and in 10% of patients undergoing repeat cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the incidence, features and predictors of conduction disorders in the immediate post-operative period of patients subjected to open-heart surgery, and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Material and Method We prospectively studied 374 consecutive patients who underwent open-heart surgery in our institution: coronary artery bypass (CABG) (n=128), Mitral valve replacement(MVR)(n=18), aortic valve replacement(AVR) (n=21), MVR and AVR(n=56), repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n=51), repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n=57),CABG and valvular surgery (n=6), others (n=37). Results Among 374 patients included in our study (mean age 34.46±25.68; 146 males), 192 developed new conduction disorders: symptomatic sinus bradycardia in 8%, atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response (AF) in 4.5%, first-degree atrioventricular block (AVB)in 6.4%, second-degree AVB in 0.3%, third-degree AVB in 7%, new right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, and new left bundle branch block (LBBB) in 2.1%. In 5.6% patients, a permanent pacemaker was implanted, 47.6% of them underwent valvular surgery. In 44.1% of patients the conduction defects occurred in the first 48 hr. after surgery. In CABG group, 29.7% of patients developed new conduction disturbances; the most common of them was symptomatic sinus bradycardia. After valvular surgery 44.2% of patients developed conduction disturbances, of those the most common was atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response . After VSD and TOF repair, the most common conduction disturbance was new RBBB. Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 1.9% of patients. The occurrence conduction disturbance was compared with patient age, sex, occurrence of perioperative MI, ejection fraction (EF), postoperative use of ß-adernergic receptor blocking agents and digitalis and type of cardiac surgery. By regression analysis there was a correlation between type of surgery and new conduction defects, being significant for CABG and TOF repair. Only the occurrence of perioperative MI was related to PPM implantation. Conclusion Irreversible AVB requiring a PPM is an uncommon complication after open-heart surgery. Peri-operative MI is a risk factor.
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