Kanamycin plus rifampicin plus ethambutol in the retreatment of patients with tubercle bacilli resistant to isoniazid and streptomycin
Balasubramanian, Rani; Alexander, C.; Prabhakar, R.; Paramasivan, C.N.; Rajaram, K.; Somasundaram, P.R. and Thyagarajan, K. (1987) Kanamycin plus rifampicin plus ethambutol in the retreatment of patients with tubercle bacilli resistant to isoniazid and streptomycin. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 34 (1). pp. 12-16.
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A total of 70 patients, who had failed on primary chemotherapy and had organisms resistant to streptomycin and isoniazid but sensitive to rifampicin, were prescribed rifampicin plus ethambutol thrice weekly for 12 months, supplemented by kanamycin thrice weekly in the first 3 months. In all, 57 patients were included in the main analyses; a high proportion had extensive cavitated radiographic disease and moderately or heavily positive sputum smears. Sputum conversion was very rapid, 65 % being culture negative by 2 months and 93% by 4 months. A favourable response was obtained in 52 (91 %). The incidence of possible adverse reactions was low, 5 (7 %) requiring a modification of chemotherapy. None of 33 patients followed up for a 4-year period had a relapse.
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