Influence of land-use on the fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of malaria in Nigeria

Olayemi, Israel Kayode (2009) Influence of land-use on the fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of malaria in Nigeria. Online Journal of Health And Allied Sciences, 7 (4). ISSN 0972-5997

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Abstract

Background: Urbanization often results in profound environmental alterations that may promote the transmission of malaria. Though, land-use practices in urban areas have been linked with proliferations of suitable larval breeding habitats of malaria vectors, no attempt has been made to systematically investigate the influence of land-use practices on malaria transmission in Nigeria. Objectives: To elucidate the influence of land-use practices on larval development and adult body size of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in Minna, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Newly-hatched larvae of An. gmbiae mosquitoes were reared in semi-natural habitats stationed in five different sites, each representing the major land-use types in the area. The larvae were monitored daily for Duration of Immature Development (DID) and Immature Survival Rate (ISR); while Wing Length (WL) was used as an index of adult body size. Results: DID, ISR and WL varied significantly (P < 0.05) among the land-use categories; with lager numbers of bigger mosquitoes produced at a faster rate in the artificial than natural land-use sites. Water temperature for larval development was best in the Refuse Dump (RD) site (mean = 28.11 ± 2.50oC) and consequently the shortest DID (mean = 9.70 ± 0.74 days), as well as, the largest mosquitoes (mean WL = 3.10 ± 0.90 mm), were recorded in this land-use category. However, while ISR was highest (mean = 96.30 ± 2.78%) in Farm Land (FL), the mosquitoes that emerged from this site were the smallest (mean WL = 1.96 ± 0.51mm). The Natural Vegetation (NV) land-use category was the least productive, as the larvae took the longest time (13.29 ± 1.69 days) to develop, and survived least (42.94 ± 7.50%) in this site. Conclusion: The land-use practices in Minna enhanced the fitness of An. gambiae, and may increase the vectorial capacity of the species for malaria transmission in the area. Targeted larviciding interventions will greatly contribute to malaria control efforts in Minna, Nigeria.

EPrint Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Malaria, Mosquitoes, Survival Rates, Temperature, Wing Length, Land Use, Anopheles gambiae, Nigeria
Subjects:Environment and Public Health > Environment
Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms > Pathologic Processes > Disease Attributes
Animals > Invertebrates
-Journal Repositories > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
Social Sciences > Sociology
Parasitic Diseases > Protozoan Infections > Coccidiosis > Malaria
Geographic Locations > Africa > Africa South of the Sahara > Africa, Western > Nigeria
ID Code:3231
Deposited By:Dr Srinivas Kakkilaya
Deposited On:13 March 2009

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