Problem solving style, hopelessness, helplessness and haplessness as the predictors of psychopathology assessed by MMPI-2
Sari, S and Dag, I (2009) Problem solving style, hopelessness, helplessness and haplessness as the predictors of psychopathology assessed by MMPI-2. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry (Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi), 10 (4). pp. 261-270.
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Objective: The aim of the study was to adapt three different scales to Turkish population which were measuring intolerance to uncertainty, assessing positive beliefs about worry and positive and negative appraisals about worry. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 students from various departments of the Hacettepe University. Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Why Worry-II Scale (WW-II), Consequences of Worrying Scale (COWS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety Form (TAI) was used to collect data. Results: Findings revealed that internal consistencies of IUS, WW-II, COWS and their subscales were satisfactory. The factor analysis of IUS revealed a four factor solution: ‘uncertainty is stressful and upsetting’, ‘negative self-assessment about uncertainty’, ‘disturbing thoughts about the uncertainty of future’, ‘uncertainty keeps someone from acting’. The factor analysis of WW-II revealed a three factor solution: ‘worrying helps problem solving and is a source of motivation’, ‘worrying prevents dangerous and negative consequences’, ‘worrying protects against negative emotions’. The factor analysis of COWS revealed a two factor solution: ‘negative appraisal about worry’ and ‘positive appraisal about worry’. Conclusion: It is concluded that Turkish versions of the IUS, WW-II, and COWS were reliable and valid instruments that can be used in normal Turkish samples; however the results should be supported in further studies that include clinical samples.
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