Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat
Prajapati, Prakash; Oza, Jaydeep; Prajapati, Jagruti; Kedia, Geeta and Chudasama, Rajesh K (2011) Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 9 (4). ISSN 0972-5997
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Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition) and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19) were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls); with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40%) both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.
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