Dystocia and its management in the bitch and queen: a review
Purohit, G.N. (2004) Dystocia and its management in the bitch and queen: a review. Journal of Canine Development and Research, 4. pp. 90-100. ISSN 0973-3272
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Dystocia in the bitch and cat has been poorly described. A wide variation in the whelping/kittening process appears to be present over the various breeds of these two species. The reported incidence shows a wide variation with an overall incidence of 5-7%. The miniature as well as Brachy cephalic breeds of dogs and the Persian cats appear to be more prone to dystocia. The maternal causes of dystocia appear to be more common in the dog and cat with uterine inertia as the predominant cause followed by narrow pelvic canal, abnormal maternal soft structures, uterine abnormalities and nervous voluntary inhibition of labor. The fetal causes of dystocia described for the bitch and cat include fetal oversize, fetal malpresentations and monstrosities. Careful management of dystocia in these two species is an essence often necessitating an emergency caesarean section to save the pups when medical therapy with pharmaceutic agents fails to relieve the dystocia.
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