Impact evaluation of iron and iodine fortified salt

Nair, K.M.; Brahmam, G.N.V.; Ranganathan, S.; Vijayaraghvan, K.; Sivakumar, B. and Krishnaswamy, Kamala (1998) Impact evaluation of iron and iodine fortified salt. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 108. pp. 203-211.

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As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and effective strategy to control the double deficiency of iron and iodine in our community.

EPrint Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:DFS, Iodine, Iron, School Children, NIN
Subjects:Inorganic Chemicals > Sodium Compounds > Sodium Chloride
Persons > Age Groups > Child
Inorganic Chemicals > Iron Compounds > Iron, Dietary
Food and Beverages > Food > Foods, Specialized > Food, Fortified
Inorganic Chemicals > Elements > Trace Elements > Iodine
Growth Substances, Pigments, and Vitamins > Micronutrients
Inorganic Chemicals > Sodium Compounds > Sodium, Dietary
ID Code:861
Deposited By:Library, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad
Deposited On:06 September 2005

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